Volltext-Downloads (blau) und Frontdoor-Views (grau)

Evaluation of the dynamic tube method for measuring ammonia emissions after liquid manure application

  • Easy and inexpensive methods for measuring ammonia emissions in multi-plot field trials allow the comparison of several treatments with liquid manure application. One approach that might be suitable under these conditions is the dynamic tube method (DTM). Applying the DTM, a mobile chamber system is placed on the soil surface, and the air volume within is exchanged at a constant rate for approx. 90 s. with an automated pump. This procedure is assumed to achieve an equilibrium ammonia concentration within the system. Subsequently, a measurement is performed using an ammonia-sensitive detector tube. Ammonia fluxes are calculated based on an empirical model that also takes into account the background ammonia concentration measured on unfertilized control plots. Between measurements on different plots, the chamber system is flushed with ambient air and cleaned with paper towels to minimize contamination with ammonia. The aim of this study was to determine important prerequisites and boundary conditions for the application of the DTM. We conducted a laboratory experiment to test if the ammonia concentration remains stable while performing a measurement. Furthermore, we investigated the cleaning procedure and the effect of potential ammonia carryover on cumulated emissions under field conditions following liquid manure application. The laboratory experiment indicated that the premeasurement phase to ensure a constant ammonia concentration is not sufficient. The concentration only stabilized after performing more than 100 pump strokes, with 20 pump strokes (lasting approximately 90 s) being the recommendation. However, the duration of performing a measurement can vary substantially, and linear conversion accounts for those differences, so a stable concentration is mandatory. Further experiments showed that the cleaning procedure is not sufficient under field conditions. Thirty minutes after performing measurements on high emitting plots, which resulted in an ammonia concentration of approx. 10 ppm in the chamber, we detected a residual concentration of 2 ppm. This contamination may affect measurements on plots with liquid manure application as well as on untreated control plots. In a field experiment with trailing hose application of liquid manure, we subsequently demonstrated that the calculation of cumulative ammonia emissions can vary by a factor of three, depending on the degree of chamber system contamination when measuring control plots. When the ammoni background values were determined by an uncontaminated chamber system that was used to measure only control plots, cumulative ammonia emissions were approximately 9 kg NH3-N ha􀀀1. However, when ammonia background values were determined using the contaminated chamber system that was also used to measure on plots with liquid manure application, the calculation of cumulative ammonia losses indicated approximately 3 kg NH3-N ha􀀀1. Based on these results, it can be concluded that a new empirical DTM calibration is needed for multi-plot field experiments with high-emitting treatments.

Download full text files

Export metadata

Additional Services

Search Google Scholar


Author:Martin ten HufORCiD, Hans-Werner OlfsORCiD
Title (English):Evaluation of the dynamic tube method for measuring ammonia emissions after liquid manure application
Parent Title (English):Agriculture
Document Type:Article
Year of Completion:2023
Release Date:2024/04/11
Tag:Ammonia background concentration; Chamber system contamination; Multi-plot field trials
Article Number:1217
Page Number:12
Faculties:Fakultät AuL
DDC classes:600 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 630 Landwirtschaft, Veterinärmedizin
Review Status:Peer Reviewed
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY - Namensnennung 4.0 International